Partial drag of the probability amplitude

Partial drag
of the
probability amplitude

Manuel MaDomenech Izquierdo
March 6 2001

Since more than a half century ago the partial drag effect of Fizeau has been taken as experimental demonstration of the theory of the relativity. However it is not necessary to appeal at it to explain this phenomenon because one can make otherwise that it seems a lot more in agreement with the physical reality of the things, and it could synthesize the theory of the relativity with the quantum electrodynamics.

With the due philosophical cautions, that is to say, without confusing the imagination with the intelligence, neither making "hipostasis" with the numbers of the measures, we can imagine the universe like a fluid matter in which vibrations take place.

This vibration is from bias of the matter to be a thing or another, centered in what it is. The vibration, from a place, affects all the rest of matter of the universe, because it also changes its bias to be another thing. This happens instantly. It is an ontologic thing, non mechanics.

Let us call "vibration center" each point picking up a reversible elementary vibration These vibration centers can be real or virtual. They are real when in the place of the vibration there is matter vibrating, and they are virtual when in the center of the vibration there is not matter vibrating. Two vibrations of the same frequency with a phase delay of 180o and separated by a certain distance, gives us a center of virtual vibration in the middle.

Between all emissions and absorptions from an extreme to another there are entertainments in a multitude of possible quantum states.

In each stop at the vibration centers, due to the interferences of the probability amplitudes and the quantum states of the material, a possible quantum jump takes place.

These quantical jumps are not usually appreciated. Those are only appreciated that constitute a big collective in phase during a big time, that is to say, a series of coherent jumps. In the phenomenon of interference, for example, there are millions of coherent quantum jumps. The coherence of a successive multitude in a certain geometry, is necessary condition for the natural appearance in the world of the macrocosms.

All the centers of vibration of the universe produce interferences in all the points of the universe. These interferences are of probability amplitude and they are imperceptible until quantum jumps take place. These jumps are detected in physics by the irreversible processes of amplification that Bohr said. In all the points there is always interference of probability amplitude, but real changes only take place when possible quantum states are reached. Then it is when real or virtual vibration centers take place.

It can happen that the vibration of the an issuing focus is the less influential one in the production of a ne one. The rest of effects of the centers of vibration of the rest of the universe can prepare a vibration until the fair end, and that it is the effect of the issuing focus the one that determines with very little influence the formation of a new vibration center.

The amplitude is a physical reality, although it can no be appreciated, if it is not indirectly, when a possible quantum jump takes place. The probability amplitude is the sum, in a point, of the effect of the state of vibration of all the vibraction centers of the univers, with its respective phases.

The possibility of detection of the vibration advances with finite speed because the vibration passes the time in the vibration centers. The influence of a jump in a point is instantaneous in all the universe, with more or less intensity according to the distance. As the phenomenon is of cylindrical symmetry, it diminishes linearly with the distance. The bottom of vibration of the influences of the rest of universe is constant, although a system moves with respect to him. The sum of influences of a concrete jump and the constant bottom, determine the time that happens until another jump can be detected, consequence of first, in another point. This is what it always happens at the speed which we reffer as of the light.

There is total drag of the probability amplitude with regard to any fluid material of an inertial system, because all system receives the influences of the rest of the universe, conserving all the inertial relationships. Let us notice that also the vibration centers tied to the material fluid are dragged by the material.

In the so called experiment "the drag of the ether" from Fizeau theer is a transparent material with relative movement both regarding the originator and the receiver of the radiation.

When between an originator and a receiver there is a material fluid for which a vibration propagates, the transport of the centers of vibration of that fluid, affects the phase of the probability amplitude in the receiver, so that the speed of propagation of the vibration is dragged. The experimental device is the one that was called of "the partial drag of Fizeau."

Once a change has taken place in the mobile system, this is bound to him, but before the change, the probability amplitude prevails.

All electromagnetic interaction, be a charged particle or a wave, is governed by the probability amplitude.

The sequential instances of the vibration centers jump through the system at the speed of light. This speed is finite because the vibrations remain entertained during large periods of time in the matter, and also some time in the virtual centers of vibration of the rest of the universe.

In the figure 1 we can see the representation of the jumps of the vibration centers due to the drag of the mobile system while they have passed the time in the matter of the mobile system and this moves:

(-o o--)

and the jumps that they make from material point to material point with the speed of the light, due to the interference of of the probability amplitudes for "all the trajectories and all the speeds":



-------O O-----------O O----------O O-------O
---O O------O O----------O O---------------O O--
O------O O------O O-------O O------O O--

Fig. 1. - Representation of the tranport of centers of vibration in a moving material.

The time in that the vibration is entertained in bound centers to the mobile system, the amplitudes move with him. During the rest of the time, the advance obeys the entertainment average of the centers of vibration of the universe rest, what determines that the speed is that of the light.

It is not the same thing that moving a vibrating matter that a vibration stopping and beginning in another place. When they both happen at the same time, there is partial drag for a fixed observer that observes the statistical result of both.

Due to the movement of the material, the speed of manifestation of the vibration will be affected in a measure that we will calculate.

Using a transparent material then their influence is manifested clearly. This is acomplished observing the propagation of light in a transparent one in which this speed is v.

The influence of the vibration centers in the universe is instantaneous, not local. The whole necessary delay for a propagation of finite speed is due to the entertainment of the vibrations in the vibration centers.

The state changes, or in form, said philosophically, of the matter of the universe, it motivates the variation of successive locaslization of the vibration centers, in which it ise concentrated the vibrant energy of the universe. Basically, we can say that have matter, states and vibration in the universe:

Let us consider a longitude of material L. If the manifestation of the vibration moved to the speed of the light, like it happens when there is not refringent matter, they would take a time:

in traveling that distance L.

As it moves with speed v, it takes a time

then the time in that the vibration remains tied in the matter of the mobile system, making in this matter the "stops" that the quantum electrodynamics supposes, is

     L       L       c - v
T = ---  -  --- = L -------
     v       c        v.c

If the mobile material moves, the length of mobile material really walked through between two fixed points at a distance L to each other, for the fixed system, has a length such L' that:

L' = L - u.t

being u the speed of the material.
           L'             L'         v
as    t = ---  we have  -----  =  -------
           v              L        v + u
and as during the time that the vibration is entertained in the vibration centers in the mobile system it is proportional to the length of the really crossed mobile material, and not to the one that measures the fixed system,
 T'    L'      v
--- = --- = -------
 T     L     v + u
the time of entertainment of the vibration between two fixed points at distance L when the material moves with speed u it is:
        v         c - v      v         c - v
T'= T -----  = L ------- • ------ = L -------
      v + u        v.c     v + u      c(v + u)

The speed observed by a fixed system will be equal to the distance L divided by the used time, time that is equal to the time T' during which the vibration is entertained in the centers of vibration of the mobile system, more the time that takes the light, due to the entertainment in the centers of vibration of the fixed system, in traveling the space L less the displacement u.T' that have suffered the vibration centers due to the speed of the material during the time T' in which it has been entertained in the material. Substituting T' in the formulation of that, we have:

             L              v + u
v' = ----------------- = -----------
           L - u.T'            u.v
      T'+ ---------       1 + -----
              c                 c2
that it is exactly the formula of the relativistic composition of speeds. Starting from this formula, the group of Lorentz transformations can be deduced, and then we can explain all that has been explained with the theory of the relativity without knowing why.

It is this way because all the electromagnetic interactions, be corpuscular or wave like, is governed by the interferences of the probability amplitude, therefore, for a bound observer to the mobile system, the speed of the photons would still be v. Each photon is emitted and it is absorbed in points of a refringent material with a speed that is always v, the speed of the light inside of it.

Let us clarify that it is not that the same real thing is in different places according to the reference system, like it seeks the theory of the relativity, because the photons absorbed in a reference system are imperceptible for the other one. A photon can only be absorbed once. (*)
(*) P. GRANGIER, G. ROGER, A. ASPECT, "Experimental evidence for a photon anticorrelation effect on a beam splitter: a new light on single - photon interferences". Europhysics Letters February 15th, 1986 pp 173-179.

Of the formula of composition of speeds the formulas of the group of transformations of Lorentz are deduced. But now we know that these transformations are among points space time that relate fictitious entelechies and don't sew real. There is not relativity, absolutely speaking. Although the contemporary physics owes to the theory of the relativity having learned what already reached the Greek philosophy very well and that the Renaissance physics had forgotten: that the absolute space and absolute time are a pure entelechy.

The statistical distribution of different times of entertainment for different material points, with instantaneous manifestation not local (and with cilindrical symmetry), it produces the same effect that a propagation for "all the trajectories with all possible speeds" which is what the calculations of the quantum electrodynamics suposses.

Therefore, with this interpretation, all the phenomenons are explained to those that the theory of the quantum electrodynamics is applied. Deducing the formulas of Lorenz of the equation of the relativistic composition of speeds, explained with this theory of the "partial drag of the probability amplitude", all the phenomenons are explained to those that the theory of the relativity is applied. So, we could have here a possible opened door towards a new theory that synthesizes quantum physics and relativity.

Manuel M. Domenech I.

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